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The grain kernels in the friction rice whitener

Friction is a process used to whiten brown rice. In the friction rice whitener the grain kernels are forced against each other and a metal screen by a steel-ribbed cylinder rotating inside a metal plated cylinder. The frictional forces created between individual rice grains and between the grains and the metal screen surface remove the bran layer from the grain. Friction polishers are always horizontal in design and apply more pressure on the grain than an abrasive whitener.

The whitening chamber is the enclosed space formed by the whitening screen and the whitening roll. The whitening screen is made up of 3 separate triangular perforated hardened steel plates which are clamped at both ends. Due to the presence of the vertical iron supports on these plates, the screen that is formed is a nonagon with unequal sides. The upper portion of the screen set up is linked to a spring system which makes it possible to be mobile.

High yielding cultivars and use of advanced methods of harvesting, threshing, milling, and storage help in alleviating postharvest losses and improve crop output. Cultivar, crop management practices, time of harvesting, postharvest handling, drying techniques, and milling methods are among a few major factors responsible for improving cooking quality of rice. Mechanical harvesting of crop at 20–26 % moisture levels followed by automated drying, pneumatic husking, and grain whitening through horizontal frictional whiteners are considered to be the best processing techniques that impart good cooking and milling qualities to the rice. In resource constrained and developing economies, adoption of advanced processing techniques to improve postharvest quality of rice is compromised on account of farmers’ illiteracy, low acreage, and poor access to the agricultural inputs. It may be compensated through capacity building and training of the stakeholders with the assistance of developed countries.

Integrated professional technology and actual production practice in domestic rice milling plant, rice polisher is designed and developed to be both economic and making rice become lucent and white. It is not only applied to be single processing machine for rice milling plant, but also used for multistep slight polishing with several machines.

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